Listed as a runaway male slave age 18 who left with the gun boats in July 1863. Undated report filed pursuant to Act of March 28, 1863 by Francis W. Ware, Charles City Commissioner of Revenue, Auditor of Public Accounts: Runaway and Escaped Slaves, Receipts and Reports, 1863, Library of Virginia Archives. Enlisted in U.S. Navy as a landsman and served on the USS Memphis and USS Kanawha.