Natives in the Landscape

1646 Treaty

© 2006 Charles City County

Historical Record: 1646 Treaty

At the death of Opechancanough, Necotowance became the new leader of the Powhatans. Articles of peace were drafted and signed in October. The Treaty of 1646 provided that:

  • Necotowance held the Powhatan territory at the grace of the Crown, and that future Indian leaders would be appointed or confirmed by the Governor of the colony. Protection against foreign powers would be extended to the Powhatans. Tribute to the crown acknowledging the relationship would come due each fall in the presentation of twenty beaver pelts.
  • Indians would not be molested on the north side of the York River, however, the English might wish to inhabit the north bank and if that were to occur the leadership would confer on the matter.
  • Indians would allow the land between the York and James from the Falls of both to Kecoughtan to be inhabited by the English. Indians traveling within those confines would be required to check in at designated points and wear a striped coat and a badge while within the territory. Indians found within the territory and without such emblems would be killed.
  • Englishmen, having special permission of the Governor, would be allowed to cut timber and sedge and tend livestock on the north side of the York. Englishmen caught on the north side of the river without permission would be tried for the offense. Temporary intrusions into the territory necessitated by inclement weather were allowed.
  • South of the James River Natives were limited in their movement between the Blackwater River and English plantations. Similar restrictions were applied.
  • Within the designated limits, Englishmen would be executed if caught harboring Indians without permission.
  • Necotowance and Indians residing to the north were to receive coats and badges at Fort Royal on the Pamunkey River.
  • Indians residing to the south were to receive badges and trade at Ft. Henry on the Appomattox or Capt. John Flood’s home.
  • Necotowance was obliged to oversee the return of guns, English prisoners, Negroes, and Indian servants to the English.
  • Keeping of Indian servants was limited to children under twelve years of age, and Indian children under the age of twelve living among the English were not in violation of the articles established.
  • Coats and badges were to be provided at the Forts or appointed places, for Indians to use while trading or relaying messages.

next 1677-80 Treaties

Natural Environment Learn about the Chickahominy tribe. Learn about the Paspahegh tribe. Learn about the Weyanock tribe.